Judith Carroll and Company, Archaeological Consultants (11-13 Anglesea Street, Temple Bar, Dublin 2), are a group of professional archaeologists based in Dublin but working countrywide. They offer a wide range of archaeological services to both public and private clients; carrying out excavations, assessments, trial testing and monitoring for developments of all scales. Judith Carroll and Co. have produced a number of publications including "Dublin city: sources for archaeologists" (2003) and reports on excavations at Balrothery, Co. Dublin (2008). Judith Carroll and Co. carry out archaeological investigations under the Planning and Development Acts (2000) and the National Monuments Acts and Amendments (1930-2004).
Archaeological monitoring of the site at College Street commenced in November 1998, with full archaeological excavation taking place during the early part of 1999. The discovery of a tiled medieval pavement underneath the present AIB bank, during the 1860s, indicated that this large site may house an important ecclesiastical foundation (J. Carroll, Excavations 1997, 38). The proximity of the site to Trinity College (itself the location of a medieval ecclesiastical foundation), the site of the Viking stone at the junction of D'Olier Street and Townsend Street, and the River Liffey, suggested that archaeological remains may be found.
Archaeological monitoring and excavation of the site revealed that it had been reclaimed in the 17th century and lay on a deep gravel bank. The western side of the site, fronting onto Westmoreland Street, revealed a channel of what may have been the River Steine or a tributary of this river, now culverted. Several large wooden stakes, including one fine piece of oak timber, were found to the east of the riverbank. These wooden stakes were embedded in the gravel bank, suggesting that they may have been used as mooring posts when the River Steine flowed through the site and when the area would have frequently been flooded by the River Liffey. In the medieval period, prior to the reclamation of the land, the Liffey ran along the present Fleet Street.
A row of seven structures dating from the 18th century was revealed, fronting onto Westmoreland Street. These houses had been erected at the time of the Wide Streets Commission. The partial remains of several structures fronting onto College Street and Fleet Street were also revealed. These also dated to the 18th century. Several wells and ice pits were revealed to the rear of the houses. One rather enigmatic feature, a large circular brick structure, measuring 2 metres x 3 metres x 6 metres, was revealed to the rear of one of these houses. The bricks of this structure exhibited a considerable amount of calcium carbonate residue, indicating that it may have been used to hold water.
At the northern end of the site, fronting onto Fleet Street, a square wooden trough was revealed. This box, 0.88 metres x 0.88 metres x 0.40 metres in size, contained a quantity of fabric; it was deliberately placed within a cut in the river silt and was held in place by small stakes. The box was sealed by a green marl, making it somewhat waterproof.
Most of the artefacts date from the post-medieval period, with a high concentration of post-medieval pottery, leather scraps and what appear to be dress-making pins. However, a small quantity of medieval finds were retrieved, concentrated mainly in the southern portion of the site. A fine late medieval spoon, a rowel spur and two merchant's tokens dating from the 1600s were recovered. A small quantity of medieval ceramics including some fragments of line-impressed floor tiles was also discovered in the southern portion of the site. The eastern portion of the site had housed the College Street Divisional Police Office during the 19th century, which extended the width of the site onto Fleet Street. A very fine granite lintel bearing the word 'POLICE' was recovered from this portion of the site.
There was no evidence of any structures before the 18th century. Further work took place during 2000 under the AIB bank.
Archival History ↴
Transferred by Judith Carroll to Dublin City Archives 26 February 2014
Immediate Source Acquisition ↴
Content & Structure
Scope & Content: Judith Carroll and Co Ltd ↴
This collection contains archaeological excavation records from a site College Street, Dublin 2, excavated by Sylvia Desmond and Judith Carroll. Includes registers, context/feature sheets, site notebooks, finds sheets, administrative material, reports, plans and photographs.
Appraisal Destruction ↴
Arranged according to document type.
Conditions of Access & Use
The collection will be made available for public research on 26 February 2017, three years after the donation date. During the closure period the collection will be made available for research only to members of Judith Carroll and Co. Ltd. or to person/s nominated by them in writing and the Terms of Membership of DCLA, including photocopying charges, will apply to all such persons.
Conditions Governing Reproduction
The terms of the Copyright and Related Acts (2000) allows DCLA to provide photocopies of material for research purposes only. Researchers wishing to publish will be obliged to write to Judith Carroll and Co. Ltd. for permission to do so.
Material Language Script
Box list available on DCAA database in Dublin City Library and Archive Reading Room
Archive Web Link →
Database of Irish excavations reports, www.excavations.ie.
Descriptive Control Area
ISAD(G): General International Standard Archival Description. 2nd ed. Ottawa: International Council on Archives, 2000.